Anthrax

The PAZA project reviewed the previous Anthrax strategy after prolonged consultation with the State Veterinary Service (SVS) in light of the new Anthrax situation in Albania. The Project suggested a revised strategy to define the extent of Anthrax aimed at protecting and reducing the risk of Anthrax in both animal and human populations in Albania. This strategy includes systematic reactive measures to reduce the Anthrax cases in areas confirmed to be at immediate risk of the disease.

The EUD ordered the project to assist the SVS by providing 110,000 doses of anthrax vaccine since ISUV stopped production of the vaccine and SVS could not import the necessary doses to continue to implement its strategy of annual national vaccination campaign against Anthrax.

Since the number of Anthrax vaccine doses was limited the project agreed with the SVS to use the vaccine in confirmed outbreak areas, after risk assessment of the suspect outbreaks of Anthrax in the field.

Training Video – How to burn and bury correctly an anthrax infected animal carcasse

Analytic and strategic documents

Review of anthrax situation in Albania

Situation and preventive measures of Anthrax until 2012, when PAZA project proposed amended strategy for control of Anthrax. It also presents the disease situation during 2013-2014. Includes a table and a graph with of all the Anthrax outbreaks 2006-2014.

Toni Kirandjiski / 27.04.2014 / 9 pages

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Review of the anthrax situation in Albania: July 2015

Full information on Anthrax situation in Albania until the amended approach in 2012 (also graph, table and map). Disease situation during 2013-2015 period. Includes tables and graph with information about vaccination process and list of villages with Anthrax outbreaks 2013-2015.

Toni Kirandjiski / 16.07.2015 / 11 pages

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STRATEGY TO CONTROL ANTHRAX

Anthrax control strategy providing the full information in terms of preventive measures, suspected cases, reporting, procedures to sent the samples in the right way to the laboratory. All the instructions in case of confirmed cases and investigation after. Vaccination plan, cooperation institutions as well as costs and budget. Includes a table of villages where all animals have to be compulsory preventively vaccinated and also the procedures for cleaning and disinfection.

Toni Kirandjiski / 16.07.2015 / 11 pages

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Cost Benefit Analysis, a decision tool to support decision on anthrax vaccine supply in Albania: Local improved production vs importation

Cost Benefit Analysis, comparing the imported vaccines with the local production after possible improvement of the production conditions at ISUV. Includes tables with figures for investments, costs and factors for both options.

Toni Kirandjiski / 13.08.2016 / 7 pages

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ANTHRAX VACCINE

The technical details in order to keep the vaccine safe and effective. The packaging requirements and the labels that should be attached to the shipping box. Details about the transportation and keeping the cold chain.

Toni Kirandjiski / 13.08.2016 / 3 pages

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STRATEGY TO CONTROL ANTHRAX – 2016

Anthrax control strategy for 2016, mentioning the obligation of reporting the Anthrax cases, measures to be taken in cases of suspected disease and confirmed one, after the laboratory confirmation. Field investigation procedure, risk assessment and annual reporting of outbreaks. Costs and payment for vaccination. Includes 5 Appendixes about clinical signs of Anthrax, safe disposal of carcasses, correct sampling , cleaning and disinfection and a full list of anthrax hotspots 2014-2016.

Toni Kirandjiski / 15.03.2017 / 18 pages

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Action plan for anthrax control strategy 2017

A summary table about the action plan for controlling Anthrax in 2017. Containing all the actions that should be taken, the responsible person, relevant dates and their status.

Toni Kirandjiski / 15.03.2017 / 5 pages

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Anthrax Communication Plan – June 2016

Communication plan for Anthrax, which foresees coming trainings, awareness materials, video spots, TV commercials and participating on a dedicated TV program. Involvement of schools is also part of the plan.

Toni Kirandjiski  / 13.08.2016 / 4 pages

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Field visits and investigation

MISSION REPORT 04 – 07 October 2016 Meetings in Anthrax ‘hot spots’

Report on informative meetings in Gjirokaster, Sarande and Vlore regions to raise awareness about Anthrax.

Esa Karalliu, Ardit Kaci / 10.10.2016 / 2 pages

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MISSION REPORT 28-29 June 2016  Visit to Gjirokaster region

Report about a field visit in Gjirokastra region and in Lab Martalloz village in Tepelene giving a clearer picture about the Anthrax situation and the vaccination process in this region.

Robert J Connor / 30.06.2016 / 3 pages

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Report on field visit on anthrax outbreaks – 21 December 2017

A field visit in Gjegjan, Kukës, for a positive anthrax case. Contains tables with the basic information of the case and all the other general information about the livestock at risk in that area. Also it gives the detailed information on the outbreak and the description of the disposal place, together with the photos.

Ardit Kaci / 21.12.2017 / 4 pages

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Report on field visit on anthrax outbreaks – 13 December 2016

A field visit in Melgushe, Shkoder, for a positive anthrax case. Contains tables with the basic information of the case and all the other general information about the livestock at risk in that area. Also it describes all of the details about the outbreak. Includes photographs from the place of disposal and the infected farm.

Toni Kirandjiski / 13.12.2016 / 6 pages

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Report on field visit to Gjirokaster to follow up Anthrax case in human and animals

Report about visits in Tepelene and Gjirokaster in the general directorates and laboratories , on site visit of the infected human at the regional hospital in Gjirokaster to investigate Anthrax outbreaks

Toni Kirandjiski  /25.06.2014/ 4 pages

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About Anthrax

Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by the sporeforming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax is most common in wild and domestic herbivores (eg, cattle, sheep, goats, camels, antelopes) but can also be seen in people exposed to tissue from infected animals, to contaminated animal products, or directly to B anthracis spores under certain conditions. Depending on the route of infection, host factors, and potentially strain-specific factors, anthrax can have several different clinical presentations. In herbivores, anthrax commonly presents as an acute septicemia with a high fatality rate, often accompanied by hemorrhagic lymphadenitis. In dogs, people, horses, and pigs, it is usually less acute although still potentially fatal.